As the efforts of national governments to improve social safety nets can lessen many of these risks, child trafficking is considered not only a result of criminal activities but also as indicating weaknesses in the national government's ability to effectively safeguard children's rights to a safe and healthy development. Limited research has not yet identified all causes of child trafficking, however, it appears that poverty, humanitarian crisis, and lack of education contribute to high rates.
 However, poverty is only one of many social "risk factors" that can lead to trafficking. Last October, an incredible 120,535 supporters called for specialist support for all trafficked children.  Children who are able to successfully return to their families often pose a significant financial burden, due to their lack of education, and the illnesses and injuries they may have incurred during trafficking work.
 Begging is often the primary source of income for street children in a number of countries, with a current study conducted by UNICEF finding that 45.7% of children who work on the streets of Zimbabwe engaged in begging, though there is no way of knowing whether it was through forced means. Child trafficking is a crime – and represents the tragic end of childhood. This definition is used in government guidance on Safeguarding children who may have been trafficked.  The severity of this form of trafficking is starting to gain global recognition, with the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the European Union, the ILO, and the UN, among others, beginning to emphasize its pertinence. (2018) 2018 NRM statistics: http://www.nationalcrimeagency.gov.uk/publications/national-referral-mechanism-statistics/2018-nrm-statistics. What rights do child victims of trafficking have in the UK? Vincent Orphanage § Sexual and physical abuse, Abuse scandal in the Sisters of Mercy § Other abuse allegations, Clontarf Aboriginal College § Allegations of abuse, Roman Catholic Diocese of Burlington § History, Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul § Allegations of child abuse in Scotland, Hague Conference on Private International Law, List of international and European laws on child protection and migration, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Trafficking_of_children&oldid=983113182, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Recommended Principles and Guidelines on Human Rights and Human Trafficking, 2002, Communication to the European Parliament and the Council, COM(2005) 514 Final, Multilateral cooperation agreement to combat trafficking in persons, especially women and children, in West and Central Africa, 2006, Mekong sub regional cooperation agreement to fight human trafficking (COMMIT), 2004, "The use of girls and boys in sexual activities remunerated in cash or in kind (commonly known as child prostitution) in the streets or indoors, in such places as brothels, discotheques, massage parlours, bars, hotels, restaurants, etc. A lack of education and literacy furthermore makes families more vulnerable to traffickers. :Article 3(c) This definition is substantially wider than the same document's definition of "trafficking in persons". Human trafficking victims are tricked, forced, threatened or otherwise coerced into moving to a situation in which they are then exploited for labour, sexual acts, domestic services, identity abuse, removal of organs or other criminal acts.  Testimonies against trafficking ring gang leaders have discussed the detainment of individuals in small cells devoid of food, water, and light to make victims weak and feeble, and thus more likely to elicit donations. ", "The trafficking of girls and boys and adolescents for the sex trade", "The production, promotion and distribution of pornography involving children", "The use of children in sex shows (public or private)", Direct roles in hostilities (combat roles), Supporting roles (such as messengers or spies), For political advantage (such as for propaganda purposes), Latin America & the Caribbean: 550,000 children, Developed/industrialized economies: unknown, Broad protection: "To prevent children and former victims from being (re)trafficked", Prevention: "Of the crime of child trafficking and the exploitation that is its end result", Law enforcement: "In particular within a labour context and relating to labour laws and regulations", Protection: "All steps towards the redress of their grievance, rehabilitation and helping to establish her/him. Child trafficking is a form of slavery that often involves immigration and criminal offences.  Social development efforts are hindered, as trafficked children's educations are cut short. In 2013 youth migrants, ages 15–24 made up 12% of total migration.  The ILO also estimates that 115 million children are engaged in hazardous work, such as the sex or drug trade.  The definition of "child" used here is that listed in the 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child which states, "a child means every human being below the age of 18 years, unless, under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier. The government is failing in its treatment of child victims of trafficking in a hostile immigration system, according to shocking new data obtained by ECPAT UK under the Freedom of Information Act ahead of the 10 year anniversary of the UK's Anti-Slavery Day.  Children who beg have also been found by UNICEF to have much higher instances of HIV-infection due to lack of awareness and supervision on the streets. In 2018 we worked with Care2 to call on the Home Secretary, Sajid Javid MP, to overhaul the current system of identification and support for victims of trafficking – the National Referral Mechanism (NRM).
, According to the World Bank forced begging is most commonly found in the Middle East and countries of West Africa, where laws prohibiting begging are scarce and heavy regulation of trafficking absent. It means that child victims of criminal offences, including human trafficking, are to be protected from sanctions or prosecution for acts that they committed in relation to their situation as victims.
Scholarly research has indicated that there is no root cause for child trafficking.  Notably, the US Department of State publishes an annual "Trafficking in Persons" report which provides ample data regarding the prevalence of human and child trafficking in the majority of countries. , UNICEF has found that children who are forced to beg by third parties are often removed from their families, surrender the majority of their income to their exploiter, endure unsafe work and living conditions, and are at times maimed to increase profits. Children can release fish easier from nets due to their small hands. As UNICEF and the World Bank note, "Often children experience several risk factors at the same time, and one of them may act as a trigger that sets the trafficking event in motion.  The incidence of child soldiers was the focus of the Kony 2012 movement, that aimed to arrest Joseph Kony, a Ugandan war criminal who is responsible for the trafficking of thousands of child soldiers and sex slaves. Children may be hesitant to share their complete stories with authorities and appointed child welfare professionals. This then becomes human trafficking. Research also highlights other communities where trafficking is prevalent. ", Other supported methods, such as those outlined by the Buffalo Human Rights Center, include relying on three Ps: protection, prosecution, and prevention. Informing children of their right to education will increase the net enrollment and grade completion rate.. Learn more.
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