glass as a building material pdf

: By adding a polyvinyl butyral layer, shatter proof glass is made. It is heavier than normal glass and may cause optical distortions as well. These were completely flat and did not have any optical distortions. Laminated glass – Two or more pieces of glass … It is available in standard thickness ranging from 2mm to 20mm. Glass has its properties as a transparent glazing material in construction. h�b```f``�c`e`�[email protected] a�(G�!�6g��O3ďL�������|����.���-;<6�41^�v����Q�;�W���fX�x�Ӷk=|k����|��8��q�;��ڭ� ���bH I����!�H����AB.�ri��*X�3|f��T�ϔ�T�δ�1�a��F)i�F�RKF{ƺ�4��. Etc. Used in skylight, window, flooring, etc, This type of glass is hydrophilic i.e. %PDF-1.4 %���� glass has historically given an aesthetic quality to architecture like no other material. If it cooled over an extremely short duration of time the glass can become too brittle to handle. 243 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 245 /H [ 1092 1244 ] /L 506943 /E 69223 /N 86 /T 501964 >> endobj xref 243 19 0000000016 00000 n Learn everything about building construction. It has to be cooled after maintaining a suitable temperature i.e. It can be blown, drawn or pressed. On the other hand, aluminum is another type of taller building … it has to be annealed. The lower the U-value the better the insulation properties of the glass– the better it is at keeping the heat or cold out. : The U-value is the measure of how much heat is transferred through the window. It has various architectural applications in doors, windows, partition, etc. It is possible to obtain glass with diversified properties- clear, colorless, diffused and stained. The material is light and easy to handle. Green, energy efficient glass can reduce this impact. 0000001092 00000 n Hollow glass wall blocks are manufactured as two separate halves and, while the glass is still molten, the two pieces are pressed together and annealed. H�ԕ�O[e��-��m�����Aѧx��Y�- 6�KF)�B|Yg��(�k7��013�-X��f#Y��|It�111&H�������25���{�����M��y�s��9�y� ( H� D !wA *짮˜.��E��v�Ğ��-�����so��U�\���ON��?kQQl��{�'�M��.�ym*O�~�8緖��M�W)]�?���Wk. The technique spread throughout the Roman Empire. This type of glass does not from sharp edged pieces even when broken. Glass blowing was discovered in the 1st century in Europe, this revolutionized the glass making industry. This elastic is 300 times stronger than glass, is resistant to most chemicals, is twice as lighter than class, has high abrasion and impact resistance. One tonne of glass production requires 4 gigajoules of energy. Normal glass can cause immense amount of heat gain and upto 30%of loss of heat of air conditioning. 117 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<8CAA08E2CC8BF583D82940F36BCFA3E4><89570F8F94D580469834EC4F78371732>]/Index[96 38]/Info 95 0 R/Length 105/Prev 1493114/Root 97 0 R/Size 134/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream nopies, shop fronts, glass blocks, railing partitions, etc. This method gave the sheet uniform thickness and very flat surfaces. These glass are available in three forms- photochromatic (light sensitive lamination on glass), thermochromatic (heat sensitive lamination on glass) and electrochromatic (light sensitive glass the transparency of which can be controlled by electricity switch.) : Float glass is also called soda lime glass or clear glass. This trapping leads to more heating and a higher resultant temperature. This is produced by annealing the molten glass and is clear and flat. endstream endobj startxref Glass is an ideal-elastic material until fracture occurs without any plastic deform ation like common building materials. conclusion over a period of time, glass has acquired a special status as a significant building material. Introduction to Construction Project Management. Hence it is used in making fire resistant doors etc. energy. type of glass is made by sandwiching glass panels within a protective layer. But glass was still an item of luxury as it took large resources, brilliant skill and immense energy to be produced. 0000068849 00000 n Manmade glass was used as a luxury material was used in decorations,  jewelry, vessels and crockery. 0000040236 00000 n Applications include window, green house glazing etc. Visible transmittance is the fraction of visible light that comes through the glass. This is extensively used in to make playhouses, green house etc. It can transmit as much light as glass without many distortions. This mixture is then floated on molten tin to form glass of desired thickness. The way in which the glass is cooled determines its strength. (Albeit they are not constructed with glass), This property allows visual connection with the outside world. The mixture is then heated in a gas fired furnace or electric smelter, pot furnace or kiln. By the advent of technology clear glass panels used in buildings can be made opaque. Traditionally glass was made by blowing liquid glass derived by melting sand calcium oxide and sodium carbonate to extremely high temperatures and the cooling the liquid to the desired shape. : Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene is a plastic with high strength and corrosion resistance. Energy-efficient glazing is the term used to describe the double glazing or triple glazing use in modern windows in homes. The way in which light transmits through a piece of glass in building can be a powerful design tool for an architect. This much energy can also be used to light over 200 homes. 0000002660 00000 n 0000002336 00000 n in the 19th century, flat / sheet glass windows were used in making windows. Glass is one of the most practical, versatile and interesting building products. The water moves over them without leaving any marks and photocatylitic i.e. The resulting glass blocks will have a partial vacuum at the hollow center. Glass bricks provide visual obscuration while admitting light. 0 Stronger than Rocky Balboa taking punches from 2000 psi punches man Ivan Drago. It is the fraction of incident solar radiation that actually enters a building through the entire window assembly as heat gain. apart from being a building material it is used in various forms also in the building to enhance the overall quality e.g. With the advent of green technology in construction, glass is constantly undergoing transformation. Glass has been a fascinating material ever since it was discovered. The versatility of glass keeps on increasing as scientists find new applications to this wonder material. But if we see today, glass as a building material is also used as a primary structural member in the form of glass fins, walls and beams. 133 0 obj <>stream The examples of stunning patterns created by using colorful glass are immortalized by great artists all over the world.The Crown glass process was used up to the mid-19th century. This type of glass can control daylight and transparency effectively. %PDF-1.6 %���� Annealing glass is critical to its durability, Glass making is an energy extensive process. 0000005019 00000 n In prehistoric times, Obsidian (Naturally occurring glass found near volcanic regions) and fulgurite (glass formed naturally after lightning strikes sand) were used to make weapons. 0000006363 00000 n h�bbd```b``��� ��0�d5�������A0� It is used in the construction of composite housing and insulation to reduce heat loss. This type of glass is tempered, may have distortions and low visibility but it breaks into small dice-like pieces at modulus of rupture of 3600 psi. It is tough and protects from UV radiation (99%) and insulates sound by 50%. Glass is one of the versatile and oldest materials in the building industry. Production of Clear glass, by introduction of manganese dioxide, saw glass being used for architectural purposes. Its modulus of rupture is 5000-6000 psi. In 1958 Pilkington and Bickerstaff introduced the revolutionary float glass process to the world. Unlike the original single glazing or old double glazing, energy-efficient glazing incorporates coated (low-emissivity) glass to prevent heat escaping through the windows. It can be used in meeting rooms and ICUs. GRP is manufactured by combining hundreds of glass strands together using a pigmented thermosetting UV resin.Glass-reinforced plastics are also used to produce house building components such as roofing laminate, canopies etc. By 11th century sheet glass was made by the crown glass process. After the hot end of the process is over, the glass is set to cool. Cement can be identified as an inorganic The greenhouse effect refers to circumstances where the short wavelengths of visible light from the sun pass through glass and are absorbed, but the longer infrared re-radiation from the heated objects are unable to pass through the glass. Certain admixtures are added to the batch to give the glass appropriate proprieties or color. Large quantities of raw materials (clear sand, calcium oxide and sodium carbonate)are brought to the glass production plant. It is capable of being worked in many ways. It has high energy radiation resistance properties, it is strong, self cleaning and recyclable. and has weight range in 6-26kg/m2. Certain additions to the glass batch mix can add color to the clear glass without compromising its strength. The disk would then be cut into panes. Glass has been a fascinating material to humankind since it was first made in about 500 BC. The air barrier also enhances acoustic control. By 13th century, this technique was perfected in Venice. Once a rare and prized art, manufacturing glass has become a common industry thanks to the Pilkington process. 96 0 obj <> endobj Iron oxide is added to give glass a green tint; sulphar in different concentrations can make the glass yellow, red or black. It’s just that its properties can be enhanced by adding certain admixtures to the raw materials or by providing suitable coating to meet different needs. 0000068592 00000 n Its transparency can be permanently altered by adding admixtures to the initial batch mix. 0000004454 00000 n This ideology helped accommodate housing needs of the burgeoning middle class. Glass wool can be used as filler or insulators in buildings, also for soundproofing. K-Value- The European equivalent of the American (ASHRAE) U-Value. they are covered with Nanoparticles that attack and break dirt making it, These are made by providing air gap between two glass panes in order to reduce the heat loss and gain. They are then weighed and mixed in the right proportion. Solar power glass, switchable glass projection screens are a few of the newer uses. 0000000731 00000 n 0000005696 00000 n Interlayer- The transparent damping material used in laminated glass. It has too much transparency and can cause glare. Stain glass windows were used in gothic renaissance and baroque architecture from the 11th to the 18th century. 0000003237 00000 n The Units are W/m2K and are based on a wind speed of 4.4 m/sec at O°C with an indoor temperature of 20°C. Glass is now being used in the building industry as insulation material, structural component, external glazing material, cladding material; it is used to make delicate looking fenestrations on facades as well as conventional windows. It was not just used as transparent material, but also as a hard and resistant material in various projects. Making glass is a very ancient process, with archaeological evidence of glass making dating back to before 2500 BC. steel combine in designing of building facades. 0000002313 00000 n Glass and steel construction have become the symbol of development in many countries, where people tend to see these buildings as symbols of affluence and luxury. This is one material to look out for. Glass can also bewelded by fusion. It is used in making ca. 0000003528 00000 n In this process, the glassblower would spin molten glass at the end of a rod until it flattened into a disk. The use of Glass material has been adopted since centuries. It is one of the most versatile and oldest materials in the building industry. (Electro chromatic glazing). Quartz sand without additives becomes glass at a temperature of 2,300 degrees Celsius Adding sodium carbonate (soda) reduces the temperature needed to make glass to 1,500 degrees Celsius. A homogeneous mixture of molten glass is then formed. Over the next 1,000 years glass making spread through all of Europe and Middle East. in furniture, electrical appliances and decorative items.

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