Non-Nazi parties were formally outlawed on 14 July 1933, and the Reichstag abdicated its democratic responsibilities. Röhm was also able to secure protection from the Bavarian government, which depended on the local army command for the maintenance of order and which tacitly accepted some of his terrorist tactics. Under Captain Mayr "national thinking" courses were arranged at the Reichswehrlager Lechfeld near Augsburg, with Hitler attending from 10–19 July.  Hitler was put on trial for high treason, gaining great public attention. Hess participated in the putsch, but escaped police custody following its abortive end. This April 20 marks the 127th anniversary of the birth of Adolf Hitler, the unremarkable artist who would rise to become the dictator of Germany and the instigator of the Holocaust. Below the Führer the party was drawn from the Volk and was in turn its safeguard. German newspapers wrote that, without doubt, the Hitler-led government would try to fight its political enemies (the left-wing parties), but that it would be impossible to establish a dictatorship in Germany because there was "a barrier, over which violence cannot proceed" and because of the German nation being proud of "the freedom of speech and thought". The republic seemed to have become more respectable. Pardoned by the Bavarian Supreme Court, he was released from jail on 20 December 1924, against the state prosecutor's objections.. Against this backdrop, Hitler's party gained a victory in the Reichstag, obtaining 107 seats (18.3%, 6,409,600 votes) in the September 1930 federal election. The law was applied almost immediately but did not bring the perpetrators behind the recent massacres to trial as expected. Discharged from the hospital amid the social chaos that followed Germany’s defeat, Hitler took up political work in Munich in May–June 1919. The name was changed in 1920 to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers' Party, commonly known as the Nazi Party). In 1922 and early 1923, Hitler and the Nazi Party formed two organizations that would grow to have huge significance. One Nazi, Hermann Esser, climbed upon a chair and shouted that the Jews were to blame for the misfortunes of Bavaria and the Nazis shouted demands that Ballerstedt yield the floor to Hitler. According to Shirer, the seemingly preposterous "South German nation" idea actually had some popularity in Munich in the politically raucous atmosphere of Bavaria following the war. The subsidies Hitler received from the industrialists placed his party on a secure financial footing and enabled him to make effective his emotional appeal to the lower middle class and the unemployed, based on the proclamation of his faith that Germany would awaken from its sufferings to reassert its natural greatness. As an army political agent, he joined the small German Workers’ Party in Munich (September 1919).  In the following days, Hitler spoke to several packed houses and defended himself, to thunderous applause. In the May 1924 German federal election the party gained seats in the Reichstag, with 6.6% (1,918,329) voting for the Movement. It was he who recruited the “strong arm” squads used by Hitler to protect party meetings, to attack socialists and communists, and to exploit violence for the impression of strength it gave. His strategy proved successful: at a general membership meeting, he was granted absolute powers as party chairman, with only one nay vote cast.. Days after the ban, SA-men shot dead two communists in a street fight, which led to a ban being placed on the public speaking of Goebbels, who sidestepped the prohibition by recording speeches and playing them to an audience in his absence. , which destroyed Weimar Germany. It was the rival Weltanschauung, Marxism (which for him embraced social democracy as well as communism), with its insistence on internationalism and economic conflict. The greatest enemy of Nazism was not, in Hitler’s view, liberal democracy in Germany, which was already on the verge of collapse. The membership numbers were also apparently issued alphabetically, and not chronologically, so one cannot infer that Hitler was in fact the party's 55th member. The attacks continued and reached fever pitch when SA leader Axel Schaffeld was assassinated on 1 August. On 22 February 1933, he wrote, "Hitler may be no statesman but he is an uncommonly clever and audacious demagogue and fully alive to every popular instinct," and he informed the Foreign Office that he had no doubt that the Nazis had "come to stay. In June, Goebbels was charged with high treason by the prosecutor in Leipzig based on statements Goebbels had made in 1927, but after a four-month investigation it came to naught.. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. While he studied the activities of the DAP, Hitler became impressed with Drexler's antisemitic, nationalist, anti-capitalist and anti-Marxist ideas.  This early incarnation of a bodyguard unit for Hitler would later become the Schutzstaffel (SS). Adolf Hitler's rise to power began in Germany in September 1919 when Hitler joined the political party then known as the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – DAP (German Workers' Party). Members of its executive committee wanted to merge with the rival German Socialist Party (DSP). His rival Erhard Auer was also wounded in an attack. Ineffective Constitution. The committee members realised that the resignation of their leading public figure and speaker would mean the end of the party. He was sentenced to prison for five years but served only nine months, and those in relative comfort at Landsberg castle. Hitler saw this offer as placing him in a position of "playing second fiddle" in the government.. The Beer Hall Putsch in November 1923 and the later release of his book Mein Kampf (My Struggle) expanded Hitler's audience.  Hitler returned to Munich on 11 July and angrily tendered his resignation. Special courts were announced to try such offences. When he joined the party, he found it ineffective, committed to a program of nationalist and socialist ideas but uncertain of its aims and divided in its leadership.  Impressed with Hitler's oratory skills, Drexler encouraged him to join the DAP.  Wessel had penned a song months before which would become a Nazi anthem as the Horst-Wessel-Lied. After his release from prison, he often went to live on the Obersalzberg, near Berchtesgaden. The Nazis and the Communists made great gains at the 1930 federal election. The notion of "Breaking Interest Slavery" was, by Hitler's account, a "powerful slogan for this coming struggle.". By this time both sides marched into each other's strongholds hoping to spark a rivalry. In the federal election of July 1932, the Nazis won 37.3% of the popular vote (13,745,000 votes), an upswing by 19 percent, becoming the largest party in the Reichstag, with 230 out of 608 seats. At Berchtesgaden, his half sister Angela Raubal and her two daughters accompanied him. When Hitler's citizenship became a matter of public discussion in 1924 he had a public declaration printed on 16 October 1924, The loss of my Austrian citizenship is not painful to me, as I never felt as an Austrian citizen but always as a German only. For over four years (August 1914 – November 1918), Germany was a principal nation involved in World War I [b] on the Western Front.  He had fallen out with the Centre Party. , In 1920, a small "hall protection" squad was organised around Emil Maurice. In the May 1928 federal election, the party achieved just 12 seats in the Reichstag. After some reflection, Hitler had determined that power was to be achieved not through revolution outside of the government, but rather through legal means, within the confines of the democratic system established by Weimar. , At the July 1932 federal election, the Nazis became the largest party in the Reichstag, yet without a majority. The Act did not infringe upon the powers of the President, and Hitler would not fully achieve full dictatorial power until after the death of Hindenburg in August 1934. He used the time to write Mein Kampf, in which he argued that effeminate Jewish-Christian ethics were enfeebling Europe, and that Germany needed a man of iron to restore itself and build an empire.  The Nazis and Communists between them secured almost 40% of Reichstag seats, which required the moderate parties to consider negotiations with anti-democrats. Economic stability had been achieved by a currency reform and the Dawes Plan had scaled back Germany’s World War I reparations. Through the late 1920s and early 1930s, the Nazis gathered enough electoral support to become the largest political party in the Reichstag, and Hitler's blend of political acuity, deceptiveness, and cunning converted the party's non-majority but plurality status into effective governing power in the ailing Weimar Republic of 1933. After less than a month the law was repealed on 30 May by Franz von Papen, Chancellor of Germany.  Hitler was eventually sentenced to 3 months imprisonment and ended up serving only a little over one month. Prior to the Great Economic Depression, Nazi Party was no more than a conspirational group. His propaganda and his personal ambition caused friction with the other leaders of the party. He could not get the Reichstag to agree to his actions, so, President Hindenburg used Article 48 to pass the measures, Anger and bitterness helped the Nazis to gain more support. This federalist organization objected to the centralism of the Weimar Constitution but accepted its social program. Adolf Hitler, byname Der Führer (German: “The Leader”), (born April 20, 1889, Braunau am Inn, Austria—died April 30, 1945, Berlin, Germany), leader of the Nazi Party (from 1920/21) and chancellor (Kanzler) and Führer of Germany (1933–45). He initially fled to Austria, but later turned himself in to the authorities. At the March 1933 elections, again no single party secured a majority. The government was in chaos. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Hitler, in hospital at the time, was informed of the upcoming, As a socialist journalist, he organised the. , In 1920, Hitler also began to lecture in Munich beer halls, particularly the Hofbräuhaus, Sterneckerbräu and Bürgerbräukeller. The Act allowed Hitler and his Cabinet to rule by emergency decree for four years, though Hindenburg remained President. From here there was and could be no turning back. On the orders of his army superiors, Hitler applied to join the party. [h][i], In July 1919 Hitler was appointed Verbindungsmann (intelligence agent) of an Aufklärungskommando (reconnaissance commando) of the Reichswehr, both to influence other soldiers and to infiltrate the German Workers' Party (DAP). Hitler became devoted to one of them, Geli, and it seems that his possessive jealousy drove her to suicide in September 1931. In a tit-for-tat action, the SA stormed a Rotfront meeting on 25 August and days later the Berlin headquarters of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) itself. Weaknesses in the Constitution crippled the government. 4 (Department Ib).  Arriving on 21 November, he was assigned to 7th Company of the 1st Replacement Battalion of the 2nd Infantry Regiment.
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