The river breaks down into a network of branches and lakes as it continues northward and, at Kabara, eastward. Agriculture is the dominant economic sector in the country, with cotton production, cattle and camel herding, and fishing among the major activities. Women are seen as wives and mothers while men hold positions of authority and reign over their households as head of the family. Popular musical performers in Mali include Oumou Sangaré, a Wassoulou musician, and singer and guitarist Vieux Farka Touré. Popular local beverages in Mali include dabileni which is made from water, sugar, and sorrel (a herb) as well as jinjinbere a drink combining water, lemon, sugar, and ginger. The area that is now Mali was once part of the three great precolonial Sudanic empires: Ghana, Mali, and Songhai. Hudgens, Jim, Richard Trillo, and Nathalie Calonnec. In Mali, the state of Macina, in the midst of the Inner Niger Delta was dominated by Fula people and culture.. What is today the nation of Mali was united first in the medieval period as the Mali Empire. Though Mali's literature is less famous than its music, Mali has always been one of Africa's liveliest intellectual centers. Malian musical traditions are often derived from Mande griots or jalis, a family-based caste of performing poets. Mali’s landscape is largely flat and monotonous. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? High waters occur on the upper Niger from July to October, at the delta from September to November, and at the bend from December to January.
Among the country’s most well-known writers include Yambo Ouologuem, Moussa Konaté, Fily Dabo Sissoko, and Massa Makan Diabaté. The fabled but now faded trading and learning centre of Timbuktu is situated in Mali on the upper Niger River.  Mali's national team became more prominent, after hosting the 2002 African Cup of Nations but has never qualified for the World Cup despite making it to the final round of the 2018 World Cup Qualifiers. Bògòlanfini ("mud cloth"), a handmade cotton fabric, traditionally dyed with fermented mud, has an important place in traditional Malian culture, and has more recently, become a symbol of Malian cultural identity. The Niger then forms an interior delta, because the land is flat and the river’s gradient almost nonexistent. The Fula traditions of nomadic cattle herding has bequeathed values of mobility and independence, and at the same time created networks of mutual dependence between certain communities and cultures.
Professor of History, University of North Carolina, Wilmington.
An extension of the mountainous Hoggar region of the Sahara, this heavily eroded sandstone plateau rises to elevations of more than 2,000 feet.
Professional Mande musicians and singers, known as jeliw, use traditional instruments such as the kora (which resembles a 21 string harp), xylophones (also called balafon), and l… All along the edge of the Sahara, and far into the dry land of isolated oases live the nomadic Berber Tuareg and the (in the northwest) Maures (or Moors), of Arab-o-Berber origins. From the nomadic Tuareg, Fulani, Bozo fishers, Bambara, and Dogon farmers, each of Mali’s dozens of ethnic groups have their own unique languages and history, yet generally interact amicably with each other. For centuries, caravans crossed the Sahara desert from North Africa while others came from the forest regions to the south, meeting at the crossroads of Timbuktu. Local dishes are prepared using grains and a variety of sauces prepared from ingredients such as tomatoes, peanuts, spinach, sweet potato, and a native species of tree known as the baobab.
According to estimates from 2008, some 90% of the country’s population ascribe to the Sunni Muslim faith. It’s believed that the Islamic religion came to Mali sometime in the eight century and blossomed in popularity during the time when the region became a French territory late in the 19th century. past the town of Mopti, East of the Niger River the Dogon Plateau descends gently westward to the river valley but ends in abrupt cliffs on the southeast.
Other notable towns include Djenné, noted for its famous mosque and other examples of Sudanese architecture, and Mopti, a bustling market centre.
Dancing also plays a significant role in the culture of Mali. It flows to the northeast across the Mandingue Plateau, its course interrupted by falls and a dam at Sotuba. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Types of meat consumed in Mali include mutton, beef, goat, and chicken.  Informal games are often played by youths, using a buFUNndle of rags as a ball. Located in western Africa, Mali is home to a population of approximately 19,329,841 people and gained its independence from France in 1960. French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages are spoken as well.
The desert region is composed of sand, rock, and gravel. The only marked relief feature in the north is the Iforas Massif. These include traditional, civil, or religious marriages. These traditional practices include circumcision for males and clitoridectomy for females. Minority religions in the region include Christianity which is the religion of approximately 5% of the population. Although Mali is one of the largest countries in Africa, it has a relatively small population, which is largely centred along the Niger River.
Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%.
Females living in Mali are subject to social, political, and economic domination by their male partners.
Malian cuisine varies regionally. This ethnic group now makes up about half of Mali’s total population. The flow of the Niger varies seasonally. Malians frequently participate in traditional festivals, dances, and ceremonies. Culture.
Dispatch from Mali: Democracy at Play -- Soccer Coverage and Viewing for All. Although the specific ingredients may vary from region to region the basic recipe includes rice, chili peppers, tomatoes, tomato paste, oil, onions and salt along with various spices which may include garlic, cumin, nutmeg, and ginger. From March to June the harmattan, a dry, hot wind that blows from the east out of the Sahara, sweeps the soil into dusty whirlwinds and is accompanied by daytime temperatures of about 104 to 113 °F (40 to 45 °C). While the current state does not include areas in the southwest, and is expanded far to the east and northeast, the dominant roles of the Mandé peoples is shared by the modern Mali, and the empire from which its name originates from.
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 Loco "plantains" are eaten most of the time along with tea. Mali’s Desert Festival also takes place in February and focuses on music.
Mali is largely flat and arid. The Bambara (Bamana) ethnic group and language predominate, with several other groups—including the Fulani (Fulbe), Dogon, and Tuareg—also present in the population.
Writers have used this particular genre as a means of helping to define the country’s national identity as well as in order to provide relevant social commentary. flows  Muslim, Christian, and National celebrations are marked as public holidays in Mali. Respect for one’s elders as well as the giving of gifts are key aspects of social life in Mali.
Periodic floods and the rich alluvial soils in the central delta make the Niger valley an important agricultural region. Tuareg and Maure peoples continue a largely nomadic desert culture, across the north of the nation.
The alize blows from the northeast from November to January and causes a relatively cool spell, with temperatures averaging 77 °F (25 °C).
 Ousmane Sembène, a Wolof Senegalese novelist, set half of his novel God's Bits of Wood in Bamako.
 Grains are generally prepared with sauces made from a variety of edible leaves, such as spinach or baobab, with tomato peanut sauce, and may be accompanied by pieces of grilled meat (typically chicken, mutton, beef, pork, or goat).
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