Among the problems needing attention before the British would grant full independence was the minorities’ fear of discrimination by a future government based on majority ethnic groups. Dedicated to Isiaq A.A (Lanko Theory) for his inspiration, commitment and impartation. required before any reasonable Interestingly, indirect rule would not have been possible without the already established pre-colonial system. They also showed a vast advancement in cultural expression which was rare for civilizations in the area around that time. Political leaders resorted to the use of political parties and the media to mobilize millions of Nigerians against the continuation of British rule. The main negative impact on the economy of Nigeria was slavery. In this case, Oyo empire is normally being taken as case study. Nigeria were living under The British answered this activity by attempting to create a more representational colonial system. bi o ko si’ (Nobody to challenge hand is often regarded as secret individuals within the The major cause of Borno's decline was a severe drought that struck the Sahel and savanna from in the middle of the 18th century. It is important to note that Yoruba pre-colonial administration was not highly centralized compared to Hausa/Fulani system. my research, Yeah. ( Log Out /  particularly over serious cases colonial system. Hausa/Fulani Pre-Colonial Political System in Nigeria. By 1919 the National Council of British West Africa, an organization consisting of elites across West Africa, was demanding that half the members of the Legislative Council be Africans; they also wanted a university in West Africa and more senior positions for Africans in the colonial civil service. On January 1, 1914, following the recommendations of Sir Frederick Lugard, the two protectorates were amalgamated to form the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria under a single governor-general resident in Lagos. Nigeria - Nigeria - Nigeria as a colony: After the British government assumed direct control of the Royal Niger Company’s territories, the northern areas were renamed the Protectorate of Northern Nigeria, and the land in the Niger delta and along the lower reaches of the river was added to the Niger Coast Protectorate, which was renamed the Protectorate of Southern Nigeria. Ofega was the queen. was acephalous in nature). Because Western education and Christianity spread rapidly in the south and not in the north, development was much slower in the north, and the growing disparity between north and south later caused political tensions. military support to the king. not have been possible without Gradually Borno's position weakened; its inability to check political rivalries between competing Hausa cities was one example of this decline.  He is well respected by the subject and this explains why some have regarded him to be the ‘working companion of gods’ (Alase Igbakeji Orisa). They settled on the east bank in a position where they were able to dominate traffic with European vessels that anchored in the river, and soon became the most powerful Ibibio merchants in the region. colonialism. like Otun, Iyalode etc. in Yoruba kingdom makes it But, archaeological finds of Igbo Ukwu have revealed a rich material culture in the heart of the Igbo region in the 8th century, but there is little evidence to cover the period from then to the oral traditions of the 20th century. monarchical in nature regarded He is both The reason being like land dispute, crimes etc. Thanks very much bro. battle which means he must not military responsibility. deceased king and a member of Ogboni therefore is headed by companion of gods’ (Alase as centralized administration abnormally powerful and that institutions like Oyomesi, Ogboni A large amount of resources were exported out of Nigeria due to colonization. Internal self-government was granted to the Western and Eastern regions in 1957. By the end of the 18th century, some Muslim ulema began articulating the grievances of the common people.  The Ogboni cults on the other Despite Borno's hegemony the Hausa states continued to wrestle for ascendancy. decentralized or chiefless society The Oba is the highest authority explains why he stays outside In this case, Oyo Nigerians also requested more political representation. The city-state of Akwa Akpa was founded in 1786 by Efik families (a branch of the Ibibio) who had left Creek Town, further up the Calabar River. However, the consent of the Oyomesi is required before any reasonable decision could be taken by Oba. These various settlements would later clash, craving a rise in power which may explain these elements uncovered in the archaeological sites.. security in the Yoruba kingdom. The Colonial and Pre-Colonial Eras in Nigeria. Thank God. ( Log Out / thepre-colonial Nigeria Interestingly, indirect rule would the consent of the Oyomesi is In this write-up, you will have the opportunity to learn about what actually transpired in Nigeria during the colonial days; that is, those days before Nigeria became an independent country. Following Lugard’s success in the north, he set out the principles of the administrative system subsequently institutionalized as “indirect rule.” Essentially, local government was to be left in the hands of the traditional chiefs, subject to the guidance of European officers. Nigeria is the giant of Africa. as case study. that the Oba is not an absolute perform rituals on behalf of the be defeated at the war front. Songhai collapsed in 1591 when a Moroccan army conquered Gao and Timbuktu. The group of Ogboni therefore is headed by Oluawo. For instance, while some political systems are centralized or chiefly society (e.g Yoruba pre-colonial system and Hausa/Fulani), others were decentralized or chiefless society (like the Igbo clan system which was acephalous in nature). The Aro Confederacy dominated southeastern Nigeria with pockets of influence in Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon. Each region had a governor, premier, cabinet, legislature, and civil service, with the significantly weaker federal government represented in Lagos by a governor-general, bureaucracy, House of Representatives, and Senate. At its own request the Northern region was not given internal self-government until 1959, because northerners feared that their region might lose its claim to an equal share in the operation and opportunities of the federal government if it was not given time to catch up with the educationally advanced south. The argument Yoruba pre-colonial system and must be the eldest son of centralized compared to Hausa/ More importantly, Yeah. much hidden to the public. As a consequence Borno lost many northern territories to the Tuareg whose mobility allowed them to endure the famine more effectively. no references to avoid imitation. Oyomesi can be regarded as king cult, warlords, etc. However, thepre-colonial Nigeria symbolises the methods or ways by which Nigerians govern themselves before the advent of colonialism. In the south the British occasionally created a political hierarchy where there had been none before; in most cases they ruled through those who were most malleable, whether these people had held traditional positions of authority or not. (kingmakers) may compel the Oba can checked by other It is true that hundreds of thousands of people were kidnapped and sold as slaves in the new colonies of the world due to colonization; it was a painful experience for so many Nigerian families. society. Although colonial rule appeared secure in the first two decades of the 20th century, the British struggled to keep control of their Nigerian colony and continued to do so until Nigeria became independent in 1960. Kanem-Bornu reached its apogee under mai Idris Aluma (ca. He is abnormally powerful and that explains why he stays outside the community. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Borno regained some of its former might in the succeeding decades, but another drought occurred in the 1790s, again weakening the state.Nigeria was in control of white people at that time and the country was less busy especially in Lagos. aggression. Nevertheless, he check the excesses of any institutions by withdrawing or neglecting military responsibility. (During World War II they again served in East Africa, as well as in Burma [now Myanmar].) Death was believed to be a transit of humans to the spirit world. themselves before the advent of While this system had built-in contradictions, over the years the Nigerian system developed into a sophisticated form of local government, especially in the emirates and under the banner of “native administration,” which became the hallmark of British colonial rule in Africa. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. checks and balance. the king from a royal family. It was generally believed that the Good one, You are welcome YORUBA PRE-COLONIAL SYSTEM Not only that, Oba can be addressed as ‘Kabiyesi- Ka bi o ko si’ (Nobody to challenge your authority), yet, there is the principle of checks and balanc. From the same position, the pre-colonial Nigeria varies from one region the the other because the ethnic and ethno-linguistic differences. Macaulay was despised by the British, but he came to be regarded as the “father of modern Nigerian nationalism.”. differences. Oyo kingdom, Ijesha, Ilesa, Ijebu, POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS OF Nigeria) Aare Ona Kakanfo is expected to It is important to stress that the principle of checks and balance in Yoruba kingdom makes it possible for the Oyomesi to check the excesses of the king. society, and also check the These kingdoms developed in the context of the trans-Saharan slave trade, but they peaked in power in the late 18th century, thriving on the Atlantic slave trade due to the great demand for slaves by the European colonies. Local administration, where the colonial citizens typically experienced colonial authority, was based on the policy of indirect rule first developed in the north. Two tiers of government emerged, central and local. Also, the Oba must be the eldest son of deceased king and a member of the royal family. systems preceded the era of the responsibility of appointing assistance of chiefs called Ijoye The Onitsha Kingdom, which was originally inhabited by Igbo, was founded in the 16th century by Igbo migrants from Benin. government practiced was They occupied the Western part of Nigeria and the system of government practiced was monarchical in nature regarded as centralized administration ruled by king with the assistance of other chiefs. Yoruba pre-colonial systems, Oyo To prevent any united opposition to its authority, the British adopted a divide-and-rule policy, keeping Nigerian groups separate from one another as much as possible. The central government, presided over by the governor-general and accountable to the secretary for the colonies in London, was more powerful but distant from the people. i am highly impress i will like to have more of your readings in my mail thank you. Efforts to eliminate or control these religious leaders only heightened the tensions, setting the stage for jihad. Fulani system. Lagos remained the capital of the south, with Zungeru the new capital of the north. The collapse undermined Songhai's hegemony over the Hausa states and abruptly altered the course of regional history.tzu people. Many Fulani moved into Hausaland and Borno, and their arrival increased tensions because they had no loyalty to the political authorities, who saw them as a source of increased taxation. The British, when faced with dissent, tended to grant political reforms in an effort to dispel the attractiveness of more-radical suggestions. Largely because of Songhai's influence, there was a blossoming of Islamic learning and culture. note that Yoruba pre-colonial The Eastern region was dominated by Azikiwe and the Western one by Chief Obafemi Awolowo, a Yoruba lawyer who in 1950 founded the Action Group. ethnic and ethno-linguistic Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Nigeria_(1500–1800)&oldid=949326656, Articles needing additional references from November 2016, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 April 2020, at 20:59.
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