, An inscription, found in Palmyra and dated to August 271, called Zenobia eusebes (the pious); this title, used by Roman empresses, could be seen as a step by the queen toward an imperial title.  Only Malalas, however, describes Zenobia's beheading; according to the other historians, her life was spared after Aurelian's triumph.
 Zenobia accommodated Christians and Jews, and ancient sources made many claims about the queen's beliefs; Manichaean sources alleged that Zenobia was one of their own; a manuscript dated to 272 mentions that the Queen of Palmyra supported the Manichaeans in establishing a community in Abidar, which was under the rule of a king named Amarō, who could be the Lakhmid king Amr ibn Adi. 15 20354 Hamburg, Deutschland Routenplanung +49 40 350046-0 E-Mail-Adresse anzeigen www.hansahamburg.de. , In the spring of 270, while Claudius was fighting the Goths in the mountains of Thrace, Zenobia sent her general Septemius Zabdas to Bostra (capital of the province of Arabia Petraea); the queen's timing seems intentional.  A lead token from Antioch also identifies Zenobia as queen.  Launching successful campaigns against Persia, he was crowned King of Kings of the East in 263.  To conceal the disaster and make her flight safer, she spread reports that Aurelian was captured; Zabdas found a man who resembled the Roman emperor and paraded him through Antioch. , Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria wrote that Zenobia did not "hand over churches to the Jews to make them into synagogues"; although the queen was not a Christian, she understood the power of bishops in Christian communities.  Galatia fell easily; the Palmyrene garrisons were apparently withdrawn, and the provincial capital of Ancyra was regained without a struggle. Omissions?  The Terumot tells the story of Rabbi "Ammi" and Rabbi "Samuel bar Nahmani", who visited Zenobia's court and asked for the release of a Jew ("Zeir bar Hinena") detained on her orders.  According to Southern, "The real Zenobia is elusive, perhaps ultimately unattainable, and novelists, playwrights and historians alike can absorb the available evidence, but still need to indulge in varied degrees of speculation. , Zenobia followed the Palmyrene paganism, where a number of Semitic gods, with Bel at the head of the pantheon, were worshipped.  Odaenathus was assassinated shortly before the emperor, and Heraclianus would have been unable to be sent to the East, fight the Palmyrenes and return to the West in time to become involved in the conspiracy against the emperor.  The Augustan History claims that Zenobia conspired with Maeonius for a time because she did not accept her stepson as his father's heir (ahead of her own children).  In the second half of 271, Aurelian marched to the East, but was delayed by the Goths in the Balkans; this may have alarmed the queen, driving her to claim the imperial title. , The first inscription mentioning Zenobia as queen is dated two or three years after Odaenathus' death, so exactly when Zenobia assumed the title "queen of Palmyra" is uncertain.
Diese Version unserer Website wendet sich an Deutschsprachige Reisende in Deutschland.  Zenobia may have been in Palmyra, but this would have reduced the likelihood of a smooth transition; the soldiers might have chosen one of their officers, so the first scenario of her being with her husband is more likely.  By March 271, despite indicating Aurelian as the paramount monarch by naming him first in the dating formulae, the coinage also began bearing Vaballathus' regnal year.  The queen was never acknowledged as sole monarch in Palmyra, although she was the de facto sovereign of the empire; she was always associated with her husband or son in inscriptions, except in Egypt (where some coins were minted in Zenobia's name alone).  His apparent condoning of Zenobia's actions may have been a ruse to give her a false sense of security while he prepared for war.
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